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Presidential Policy Directive 41 – United States Cyber Incident Coordination

While the vast majority of cyber incidents can be handled through existing policies, certain cyber incidents that have significant impacts on an entity, our national security, or the broader economy require a unique approach to response efforts. These significant cyber incidents demand unity of effort within the Federal Government and especially close coordination between the public and private sectors.

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Why Is Cybersecurity Not a Human-Scale Problem Anymore?

In this Viewpoint, we show why cybersecurity is a very difficult problem. The enterprise attack surface is massive and growing rapidly. There are practically unlimited permutations and combinations of methods by which an adversary can attack and compromise our networks. There is a big gap between our current tools and methods, and what is needed to get ahead of cyber-adversaries.

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Above the Line, Below the Line

All these features [of Internet-facing systems] are simultaneously products of the environment and enablers of it. They have emerged in large part because the technical artifacts are evolving quickly, but moreso because the artifacts cannot be observed or manipulated directly. Computing is detectable only via representations synthesized to show its passing. Similarly, it can be manipulated only via representations.

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