Generative pre-trained transformers (GPT) are a type of large language model (LLM) and a prominent framework for generative artificial intelligence. They are artificial neural networks that are used in natural language processing tasks. GPTs are based on the transformer architecture, pre-trained on large data sets of unlabelled text, and able to generate novel human-like content. As of 2023, most LLMs have these characteristics and are sometimes referred to broadly as GPTs.
The first GPT was introduced in 2018 by OpenAI. OpenAI has released very influential GPT foundation models that have been sequentially numbered, to comprise its “GPT-n” series. Each of these was significantly more capable than the previous, due to increased size (number of trainable parameters) and training. The most recent of these, GPT-4, was released in March 2023. Such models have been the basis for their more task-specific GPT systems, including models fine-tuned for instruction following—which in turn power the ChatGPT chatbot service.
The term “GPT” is also used in the names and descriptions of such models developed by others. For example, other GPT foundation models include a series of models created by EleutherAI, and recently seven models created by Cerebras. Also, companies in different industries have developed task-specific GPTs in their respective fields, such as Salesforce’s “EinsteinGPT” (for CRM) and Bloomberg’s “BloombergGPT” (for finance). —Wikipeidia, “Generative pre-trained transformer“